Sunday, January 29, 2017

FOUNDATION & BRICK MASONRY

FOUNDATION & BRICK MASONRY


TYPES OF BONDS IN BRICK MASONRY

1.   Stretcher bond
2.   Header bond
3.   English bond and
4.   Flemish bond

1. STRETCHER BOND
A stretcher is the longer face of the brick as seen in the elevation. In the brick of size 190 mm × 90 mm × 90 mm, 190 mm × 90 mm face is the stretcher. In stretcher bond masonry all the bricks are arranged in stretcher courses as shown in Fig-1. However care should be taken to break vertical joints. This type of construction is useful for the construction half brick thick partition wall.

2. HEADER BOND
A header is the shorter face of the brick as seen in the elevation. In a standard brick it is 90 mm × 90 mm face. In header bond brick masonry all the bricks are arranged in the header courses as shown in Fig-2. This type of bond is useful for the construction of one brick thick walls.

3. ENGLISH BOND
In this alternate courses consist of headers and stretchers. This is considered to be the strongest bond. Hence it is commonly used bond for the walls of all thicknesses. To break continuity of vertical joints a brick is cut lengthwise into two halves and used in the beginning and end of a wall after first header. This is called queen closer. (Refer Fig-3). Fig-3 shows typical one brick and one and half brick thick wall with English bond.

4. FLEMISH BOND
In this type of bond each course comprises of alternate header and stretcher [Fig-4]. Alternate courses start with stretcher and header. To break the vertical joints queen closers are required, if a course starts with header. Every header is centrally supported on the stretcher below it.
Flemish bonds may be further classified as

  • Double Flemish Bond
  • Single Flemish Bond.
Building elements: 
The building materials used in the construction of the following elements are the foundation for classification, be they wood, steel, or masonry.
  • Structural frame
  • Exterior bearing walls
  • Interior bearing walls
  • Exterior nonbearing walls and partitions
  • Interior non-bearing walls and partitions
  • Floor construction, including supporting beams and joists
Fire-resistance rating:
This is the other factor in determining construction class. The building materials used in the construction of the building elements above will have a fire-resistance rating. Fire-resistance rating typically means the duration for which a passive fire protection system can withstand a standard fire resistance test. This can be quantified simply as a measure of time (ex. 0 hours, 1 hour, or 2 hours), or it may entail a host of other criteria involving other evidence of functionality or fitness for purpose.
  • “Minimum” rule: It is important to remember when selecting the construction class that the building is only as strong as its weakest element. For example, a masonry building may have an unprotected wood roof. The wood roof is the weakest member such that it has no fire-resistance. Thus, the construction class would be Joisted Masonry (see below). Now imagine this same building with a metal deck roof. So long as the supporting members of the building do not contain wood then this building would be Masonry Noncombustible (see below).


Foundation
In this article we will discuss the common types of foundations in buildings. Broadly speaking, all foundations are divided into two categories: shallow foundations and deep foundations. The words shallow and deep refer to the depth of soil in which the foundation is made. Shallow foundations can be made in depths of as little as 3ft (1m), while deep foundations can be made at depths of 60 - 200ft (20 - 65m). Shallow foundations are used for small, light buildings, while deep ones are for large, heavy buildings.

 Shallow Foundations
Shallow foundations are also called spread footings or open footings. The 'open' refers to the fact that the foundations are made by first excavating all the earth till the bottom of the footing, and then constructing the footing. During the early stages of work, the entire footing is visible to the eye, and is therefore called an open foundation. The idea is that each footing takes the concentrated load of the column and spreads it out over a large area, so that the actual weight on the soil does not exceed the safe bearing capacity of the soil.There are several kinds of shallow footings: individual footings, strip footings and raft foundations. In cold climates, shallow foundations must be protected from freezing. This is because water in the soil around the foundation can freeze and expand, thereby damaging the foundation. These foundations should be built below the frost line, which is the level in the ground above which freezing occurs. If they cannot be built below the frost line, they should be protected by insulation: normally a little heat from the building will permeate into the soil and prevent freezing.

Individual Footings
Individual footings are one of the most simple and common types of foundations.  These are used when the load of the building is carried by columns. Usually, each column will have its own footing. The footing is just a square or rectangular pad of concrete on which the column sits. To get a very rough idea of the size of the footing, the engineer will take the total load on the column and divide it by the safe bearing capacity (SBC) of the soil. For example, if a column has a vertical load of 10T, and the SBC of the soil is 10T/m2, then the area of the footing will be 1m2. In practice, the designer will look at many other factors before preparing a construction design for the footing.

STRIP FOOTINGS
Strip footings are commonly found in load-bearing masonry construction, and act as a long strip that supports the weight of an entire wall.  These are used where the building loads are carried by entire walls rather than isolated columns, such as in older buildings made of masonry.

RAFT OR MAT FOUNDATIONS
Raft Foundations, also called Mat Foundations, are most often used when basements are to be constructed. In a raft, the entire basement floor slab acts as the foundation; the weight of the building is spread evenly over the entire footprint of the building. It is called a raft because the building is like a vessel that 'floats' in a sea of soil.Mat Foundations are used where the soil is week, and therefore building loads have to be spread over a large area, or where columns are closely spaced, which means that if individual footings were used, they would touch each other.

PILE FOUNDATIONS
A pile is basically a long cylinder of a strong material such as concrete that is pushed into the ground so that structures can be supported on top of it.
Pile foundations are used in the following situations:
1.When there is a layer of weak soil at the surface. This layer cannot support the weight of the building, so the loads of the building have to bypass this layer and be transferred to the layer of stronger soil or rock that is below the weak layer.
2.When a building has very heavy, concentrated loads, such as in a high rise structure.

End Bearing Piles
In end bearing piles, the bottom end of the pile rests on a layer of especially strong soil or rock. The load of the building is transferred through the pile onto the strong layer. In a sense, this pile acts like a column. The key principle is that the bottom end rests on the surface which is the intersection of a weak and strong layer. The load therefore bypasses the weak layer and is safely transferred to the strong layer.

Friction Piles
Friction piles work on a different principle. The pile transfers the load of the building to the soil across the full height of the pile, by friction. In other words, the entire surface of the pile, which is cylindrical in shape, works to transfer the forces to the soil. To visualise how this works, imagine you are pushing a solid metal rod of say 4mm diameter into a tub of frozen ice cream. Once you have pushed it in, it is strong enough to support some load. The greater the embedment depth in the ice cream, the more load it can support. This is very similar to how a friction pile works. In a friction pile, the amount of load a pile can support is directly proportionate to its length.

Construction methods – what’s available?
Most buildings (both residential and commercial) are built around a frame that provides the structure and support for the building. Framing typically falls into two categories – heavy framing and light framing – with light framing used in the majority of residential buildings.

Heavy framing includes construction methods such as post-and-beam construction, also known as timber framing, where large, heavy timber beams are used instead of dimensional lumber (wood cut to standardized dimensions such as 2×4, 2×6, etc.), and heavy steel framing that is normally seen in skyscrapers and other large commercial buildings. Light framing is typically done using dimensional lumber or light-gauge steel, with the building’s structural skeleton of wood or steel components assembled piece by piece.

Other construction methods such as masonry (building with individual stones or bricks held together by mortar), reinforced or unreinforced concrete (a material made from a mixture of gravel, sand, cement and water), rammed-earth blocks (building blocks made of compressed earth), and Structural insulated panels (SIPs) (sandwich panels with engineered wood on two sides and insulation in between) can be used independently or in conjunction with frames to build homes, but most of these methods are used in tandem with a frame in the US and Canada.


Friday, January 20, 2017

Anytime...Anywhere...on Purchase - Lead to be hired

Lead:


            A person who has indicated interest in your company's product or services in some way, shape, or form.
                      

                                                           " Make the customer the hero of your story"


Lead Generation:


            The process of attracting and converting strangers and prospects into those leads
          
      Tip

  • Provide them with enough goodies to get them naturally interested in the company so they eventually warm up to the brand enough to want to hear from you.

Why do you need lead generation?


            By showing an organic interest in your business, it's those strangers and prospects that are initiating the relationship with you.

How do you generate Leads?


            Calls-to-action, Landing pages, Offers, Forms and Thank you pages are just a few tools to help companies generate leads.


                                CTA       ------------------>    LP    ------------------->      TYP
                         Call-to-action                        Landing pages                  Thank you pages

  • Call To Action:

            A (CTA) is an image, button, or message that calls website visitors to take some sort of action.

  • Landing Pages:

            A (LP) is a web page a visitor lands on for a distinct purpose usually used to capture leads through forms.

  • Offer:

            An offer is the content or something of value that's being "offered" on the landing page. The offer must have enough value to a visitor to merit providing their personal information in exchange for access to it.

  • Forms:

            Forms are a series of fields that collect information in exchange for an offer hosted on landing pages.

  • Thank You Page:

            After they submit the forms, they are directed to a thank you page (TYP) where the offer is delivered.


 Lead Generation Techniques:



                                                    Email Marketing


Referral Programs:


            Prepare a referral program for those who already know the value of your business. Set clear goals, define rewards and determine distribution channels for your offers. Segment your subscriber list and create multiple campaigns precisely targeted to different user groups.

Dedicated Landing Pages:


            A landing page focuses on a single objective that represents your conversion goal. A web page with no distractions leads to a higher conversion rate. Create a landing page for each customer profile in order to minimise the bounce rate.

Sign-up Forms:


            Sign-up forms are crucial for collecting email address. Test different types of forms: embedded, pop-over, lightbox, bar, exit-intent. Choose those with the highest conversion.

                                                  

                                                        Social Media


Facebook:


            It offers a variety o ad products to generate leads from targeted advertising events, tabs, or organic posts.

Use links wisely:


            Insert links in your content that facilities users giving you their information to boost leads. To entice users to hand over their email address, link to a landing page gating to a piece of content or special offer.

Optimize your page:


            Include CTAs that motivate viewers to find out more about your offerings and customize your profile so that the most important information is the most visible. Make sure add a newsletter sign-up form to your page to capture emails.

Twitter:


             Twitter cards are displayed as promoted tweets would, but when someone clicks on the image, the card expands to reveal a sign-up form that is auto-populated with the user's name, Email address and twitter handle.

Ad Targeting:


            You can promote information to specific user demographics and even tailor keywords for more of a board match, meaning that you can immediately increase your reach.

Tweet with purpose:


            The thing with quick message platforms like Twitter is that it is easy to schedule posts in advance on a number of different topics. However, you have a better chance of seeing real, consistent user engagement if your tweets have a purpose. Tweets should be related, timely, on-topic and of course, match with your brand's message.

LinkedIn:



          LinkedIn is a professional social network, business-related marketing on their feed doesn't turn off its users.

Get Involved:


           Join LinkedIn groups to start interacting with potential customers. We recommend that you join industry groups and participate in discussions, but avoid using groups as a place to sell your company. You want to get your name out there as an industry participant and show others that you are involved and engaged with current topics.

Have An Active Presence:


           Successful lead generation on LinkedIn comes from having an active presence. Try and post at least once a week about newsworthy developments or occurrences in your industry. Not only will your immediate network see your activity, but also future prospective customers will be able to see a long history of active engagement on your part.


                                                         Website


Videos:


           Video is more compelling than text alone. Create an interesting explainer video that clearly describes a problem and shows how your product solves it. Include a clear call to action and add a sign-up form to your video.

Photos And Testimonials:


            Website testimonial are among the most powerful marketing tools. Displayed with photos, they build trust and help overcome buyer skepticism. Testimonials and word-of-mouth drive 20-50% of all purchasing decisions.


Gates Content:


           Create high-value content that addresses the needs of your target audience. It can attract qualified leads that may become satisfied customers. Analyse your form carefully, too many form fields may dramatically reduce conversion.



                                                   Networking


Guest Posting And Commenting:


           Establish an online presence wherever your target audience likes to spend time. Write guest posts and share insightful comments to build your reputation as an industry expert.


Events:


            Collect email addresses at trade show booths  popular conferences, private business meetings, and in-store. Use Forms on the Go to ask people to sign up to you email list even when you don't have access to the internet.


Webinars:


           A free hot-topics webinar can be strong lead magnet. It can be more effective if you partner with another company and seize the opportunity to speak to a bigger audience and increase your reach.


Conference Speeches:


           Speaking at an industry event is a fantastic way to create awareness of your solutions among an audience of prospects. You can offer guests a limited-time promo code to encourage them to subscribe.








Sunday, January 15, 2017

Swift Tutorial - Part 1

Hi developers, Today we're gonna learn what is data type, variable, constants, optionals and more in Swift Programming language. Let's get started!




Variables:


      Variables are used to store some values, when you creating a new variable the system will allocate some memories in memory(RAM). In that memory, you can store any values with any data type.

Data Types:


      Data Types are normally used to store values in variables with some type such as Int, Float, Double, Boolean, Character etc.

             Integer - This data type is used for storing a whole numbers which means you can store only the numbers without decimal points. Integers have two types they are signed and unsigned integer. Signed Integers are represented by Int8, Int16, Int32 and Int64. Unsigned Integers are represented by UInt8, UInt16, UInt32 and UInt64.

 
    var myInt = 4

    //or you can use the Int as datatype to create variables
   
    var myIntTwo: Int = 5 

             Float - This data type is used to store floating point numbers. It's smaller in size when compared to Double and it holds 32 bit floating point number with 6 decimal places.

 
    var myFloat = 4.1459

    //or you can use the Float as datatype to create variables
   
    var myFloatTwo: Float = 4.1459 

             Double - This data type is also used to store floating point numbers. It's bigger in size when compared to Float and it holds 64 bit floating point number with 15 decimal places.

 
    var myDouble = 4.1459

    //or you can use the Double as datatype to create variables
   
    var myDoubleTwo: Double = 4.1459 

             Boolean - This data type is used to store true or false value. It is used for conditions.

 

let isFirstTime = false
      
let noInternetConnection = ture



             String - It is used to store collections of characters within the double quotes.

 
    
       var myString = "Hello iOS Developers"

       //or you can use the String as datatype to create variables

       var myStringTwo: String = "Hello iOS Developers"
 


             Character - It is used to store a single character such as alphabetic letter, symbols etc. Swift stores the character internally as a grapheme cluster(made up of two or more unicode point).


  
    
       var myCharacter = "R"

       //or you can use the Character as datatype to create variables

       var myCharacterTwo: Character = "V"
 


Type Aliases:

 

         In swift, you can create your own name for default data types such as Int, Float, Double etc.

 
    
     typealias APILevel = Int
  
     var android: APILevel = 4

     print(android)
 


Type Inference:

 

         Swift compiler automatically detects which compiler you're using for your variable. So you no need to specify type for the variables.

 
    
     var varOne = 4  //It is inferred to type Int
     print(varOne)

     var varTwo = 2.3453    //It is inferred to type Float
     print(varTwo)
 

Type Annotation:


         You can provide the data type while creating the variables to represent what kind of values the variable can store.

 
    
     var varOne: Int = 4  //It is type annotation
     print(varOne)

     var varTwo: Float = 2.3453    //It is not a type annotation
     print(varTwo)
 

Semicolons:


          In swift, you no need to use semicolons for each statement but if you're writing the statement next to one another then you've to use semicolons to separate the statements.

 
    
     var varOne: Int = 4; print(varOne)


Printing Variable:


          In swift, you can print the strings using print() method and also you can interpolate a variable value by adding the variable inside the open and close parenthesis and escape it with a backslash.


  
    
       var iosVersion = 9

       print("You're using iOS Version \(androidVersion) in your iPhone") 
 


Optional:

 

       Optionals in swift can hold either a value or no value. According to Apple's documentation. Swift also introduces optional types, which handle the absence of a value. Optionals say either “there is a value, and it equals x” or “there isn’t a value at all”. Optionals are similar to using nil with pointers in Objective-C, but they work for any type, not just classes. 


 
    
  import Cocoa

  var myStringVar: String? = nil

  if myStringVar != nil { 

    println(myStringVar) 

    }else {
 
     println("It has nil value") 

  }

 



Output: 

    myString has nil value

      Automatic Unwrapping:


               By using exlamation mark instead of question mark, you no need to unwrap the optionals manually. It is automatically unwrap the optionals for you and you can get the assigned values correctly.


 
    
 
   import Cocoa

   var myStringVar: String!

   myStringVar = "Hello, Swift developers"

  if myStringVar != nil { 

     println(myStringVar)

  }else { 

    println("It has nil value")  

 } 
Output: 
 Hello, Swift developers

      Forced Unwrapping:


               If you declared a variable as Optionals using question mark. To get the value of that variable(optionals) you've to unwrap it. To unwrap, you need to put exlamation mark at the end of the variable

 
    
 
  import Cocoa

  var myStringVar: String?

  myStringVar = "Hello, Swift developers"

  if myStringVar != nil {

     println( myStringVar! )  //Unwrapping the variable

}else {

     println("It has nil value")

} 
Output: 
     
 Hello, Swift developers
If you didn't unwrap it then your output will look like below

  Optional("Hello, Swift developers")
 

Constants:

 

       Constants are used for creating a variable with fixed values. The values of the constant variable doesn't change while execution. Once you defined your values then you can't change it anywhere. Constants can be used with data types like String, Int, Float and Double etc.

To make the variable as constants you've to use let instead of var


 
    
    import cocoa

    let myconstant = 5
    print(myconstant)


Name your constants with letters, digits and underscore symbol. It must begins with letter or underscore character.

Download Playground files : 

    

Saturday, January 14, 2017

3-D Design



What Is 3-D Design?

               The term "3-D design" is a widely used abbreviation for three-dimensional design, incorporated commonly in design procedures associated with computers and other electronic drawing systems. In 3-D design techniques, a designer uses all three axes (x, y and z) to interpret and develop a realistic figure of the desired object.




What Are 3D Shapes?


               What makes something 3D? Is it the way it looks? An easy way to think of a 3D shape is any shape or object that takes up air space. Think about your own body for a minute. Your body is a 3D shape. It is not a uniform shape, like a building block, but it is a 3D shape, nonetheless. What makes your body a 3D shape? Does it take up air space? Of course it does; you can't be at the same spot as anyone else. You can't take up the same space as a chair or a dog or anything else. Only you can occupy your space. This is what makes a shape 3D.



Interior Design 3-D model

                In 3D computer graphics, 3D modeling (or three-dimensional modeling) is the process of developing a mathematical representation of any three-dimensional surface of an object (either inanimate or living) via specialized software.






2-D Design

What Is 2-D design?

             The 2d design is the one that is composed of only two dimensions. Which is considered by length and width. There are many elements and principles are applies to 2-D design. Length and width of design refer simply to the horizontal and vertical aspects of the piece. An artist or designer can apply artistic elements and principles that change the nature of 2-D design


THE GROUND PLAN

            The ground plan is a two dimensional design where, as long as it is designed with the right scale. To imagine how a floor plan looks like, is enough to think a building cut in the middle with a horizontal section and we subtract the top. The floor plans are necessary designs to make the section, the view, the axonometric but also the visualization of a building.



THE SECTION

            The section is a two dimension drawing that is concluded if we cut the building in the middle and vertical with direction to the left or to the right side.The section is useful so that to be shown building details, like steps, doors, windows, special structures, plasterboards etc.



THE VIEW


               The view doesn’t have a big difference from the section. The only difference is that the section’s show is concluded if we “cut” the building with a vertical line whereas the view’s show is concluded if we stand in front, at the back or on one side and we look towards the building.


Saturday, January 7, 2017

Keeping a dairy - Your perception is our reality

Building Relationships


            It is about your ability and initiate working relationships and to develop and maintain them in a way that is of mutual benefit to both yourself and the other party.
Good relationship are the key to getting things done and are essential when your success is dependent on others.

                                                   "Make relationships the heart of your business"


Networking:   


            Networking, online and off, can be a powerful relationship marketing technique. This isn’t just for job seekers! Think about the interests that you have as a business, and then join groups that share your affinities. This not only helps your brand awareness, but also expands your potential customer base. It’s a win-win. Not to mention that the only tool you’ll need for this is your brain. Pick something you like and keep in mind what people similar to you might enjoy.

Learn about your customer:


            Building customer relationships is much like building rapport as a salesperson.  Just like a good salesperson, you need to know your customer. You must remember the client’s name, their needs and wants.

            The key to learning about your customer is to continue the conversation after the transaction. After the sale, do a little research on them. Connect on network, find commonalities within your industries, connections, job roles and more. Start thinking about ways you can add value to them, whether that be through referrals, forwarding blog posts or offering training sessions.

            In today’s world the easiest way to differentiate your business is by the customer experience you deliver, not the products you sell. Continuously learning about your customer every time you meet will extend your customer relationship beyond ‘hi, how are you’, and will go a long way to improving customer service.

Listen to your customer:


            Listen to your customers! Every business says they do, but not all follow through or apply what they’ve heard. Even listening and responding to compliments can be beneficial. People love knowing they’ve been heard. Even complaints can be a blessing in disguise. People often just want someone to share their concerns with. By listening to these concerns, you ensure that your customers feel valued. Plus, if you learn what people love and dislike about you, you can leverage the feedback to improve your business. 

Stay in regular contact with customer:


            The key to building customer relationships is to keep your eye on the ball. Every interaction with a customer should be treated as an opportunity to monitor and build that relationship.

            By keeping in regular contact, you can track customer sentiments towards your business, and rectify problem areas identified through your regular communication. It’s a frustrating truth that 96% of unhappy customers don’t complain when they’re unhappy, and 91% will simply leave and never return.

            Tracking customer satisfaction can be hard, try using Client Heartbeat. It is a simple customer feedback tool that surveys your customers, measures satisfaction and identifies customers that need immediate attention.

            Here are some ways you can stay in regular contact with customers:

Follow up with customers after meetings by phone, email, or even social media

Send customers friendly reminders to show that you are

Forward through blog posts and videos that would be valuable to your customers

Send customers a monthly email to keep them up to date with what’s going on at your company. Include product news, company news and links to interesting content

Build a brand identity:


            A memorable brand will make it easy for customers to find you and your products. Customers will gravitate toward what they find that is memorable. If your brand resonates, they will likely remember you and you can develop the relationship further. Once you have a strong brand identity, those that wish to become a raving fan will know what you stand for and why they should care.

Build Trust With Customers:


            There are few ways to build trust in your customer relationships:

Show compassion in your actions affecting the relationship

Be honest, credible and keep your integrity 

Show you have the competence to act for the mutual benefit of your relationship

              It’s essential to exhibit these characteristics, because trust diminishes the perceived risk and vulnerability in a partnership, leading to increased customer satisfaction and reduced churn. If you don’t act in your customer’s best interests, lie to hide your flaws and make heaps of dumb mistakes, your customer will realize you can’t be trusted, and abandon your business relationship.


Practice Inbound Marketing:

            Traditional ‘Outbound Marketing’ has focused on going to where customers live and interrupting their day to show them your products and services.  When you practice Inbound Marketing, customers come to you. It’s commonly known as ‘pull-marketing’ as opposed to ‘push-marketing’ and is a great tactic to help with building customer relationships.

            This can be achieved by creating really valuable content that solves your customers real-world problems. Use mediums like blog posts, videos, eBooks. Share your content on the web through social media and by engaging in relevant online communities. Inbound marketing costs 62% less per lead than outbound marketing and is a generally considered a lead generation tool. I believe it can actually help you build stronger customer relationships. It keeps the conversation going by feeding customers useful content.

Special Event:


             Holding a special event for your existing or prospective customers is a great way to build relationships. If you put on a great event about a topic that your customers care about, they will remember that experience and  remember your business. Likely, they will rave about the event you held and how great it was. You can also leverage exclusivity here by holding an event for your top customers. It’s a way to add incentive, but it is also a way to simply thank your customers.


             There you have it! These points were helpful to build relationships in Marketing. For more information stay touch with our site.




Monday, January 2, 2017

Business to Business

Definition:


            Business to business refers to business that is conducted between companies, rather than between a company and individual consumers. Business to business stands in contact to business to consumer and business to government transactions.

                                                         
                                                                           "Do not miss a trick"

Business to Business Relationship Development:


            Business to business transactions require planning to be successful. Such transactions rely on a company's account management personnel to establish business client relationships. Business to business relationship also must be nurtured, typically through professional interactions prior to sales, for successful transactions to take place. Traditional marketing practices also help business connect with business clients. Trade publications aid in this effort, offering businesses opportunities to advertise in print and online. A business's presence at conferences and trade shows also builds awareness of the products and services it provides to other business.

Comparison with Business to Consumer:


            In most cases, the overall volume of B2C transactions is much higher than the volume of B2C transactions. The primary reason for this is that in a typical supply chain there will be many B2B transactions involving subcomponents or raw materials, and only one B2C transaction, specifically sale of the finished product to the end customer.


Business to Business E-Commerce:


            The internet provides a robust environment in which businesses can find out about products and services and lay the groundwork for future business to business transactions. Company websites allow interested parties to learn about a business's products and services and initiate contact. Online product and supply exchange websites allow businesses to search for products and services and initiate procurement through e-procurement interfaces. Specialised online directories providing information about particular industries, companies and the products and services they provide also facilitate business to business transactions.

How Business to Business selling is Different:


Selling to a business is different from selling to an individual consumer. Key sales and marketing differences for business to business transactions include:
  • Selling sometimes requires participating in a bidding process by responding to a purchaser's request for proposals. On the business to consumer side, this compares to asking various auto dealers to provide their best offer on a specific make and model.
  • The decision making process on a purchase can take days, weeks, or months, depending on how the purchasing company works and the size and nature of the order.
  • Purchasing decisions are often made by committees, so each members needs to be educated and "sold."
  • The dollar value of goods or services sold is much higher than on the consumer or retail level, so the buyer needs to take steps to minimise risk. That sometimes involves requesting a product prototype or customisation.


Sunday, January 1, 2017

Everything about Interior & Exterior Design


What is Interior Design?

Interior design is the art and science of enhancing the interiors, sometimes including the exterior, of a space or building. It’s a multi-faceted profession in which creative and technical solutions are applied within a structure to achieve a built interior environment. It's about finding creative design solutions for interior environments while supporting the health, safety and wellbeing of occupants and enhancing their quality of life.



Interior design is all about how we experience spaces.  The interior design process follows a systematic and coordinated methodology, including research, analysis and integration of knowledge into the creative process, whereby the needs and resources of the client are satisfied to produce an interior space that fulfils the project goals.


 Interior designer:

            An interior designer can undertake projects that include arranging the basic layout of spaces within a building as well as projects that require an understanding of technical issues such as window and door positioning,  acoustics, and lighting. interior designer is specialize and develop technical knowledge specific to one area or type of interior design, such as residential design, healthcare design, universal design, exhibition design, furniture design, commercial design, hospitality design and spatial branding.


Types of Balance

Symmetrical balance is usually found in traditional interiors. Symmetrical balance is characterized by the same objects repeated in the same positions on either side of a vertical axis, for example you might remember old rooms where on each side of a room is an exact mirror of the other. This symmetry also reflects the human form, so we are innately comfortable in a balanced setting.

Asymmetrical balance is more appropriate in design in these days. Balance is achieved with some dissimilar objects that have equal visual weight or eye attraction. Asymmetrical balance is more casual and less contrived in feeling, but more difficult to achieve. Asymmetry suggests movement, and leads to more lively interiors.

Radial symmetry is when all the elements of a design are arrayed around a centre point. A spiral staircase is also an excellent example of radial balance. Though not often employed in interiors, it can provide an interesting counterpoint if used appropriately.


Effects of Room colors
Colors act in three basic ways: active, passive and neutral. You can easily match every room’s colors to your personal desires, to your taste and to the room’s purpose. Light colors are expansive and airy, making rooms seem larger and brighter. Dark colors are sophisticated and warm; they give large rooms a more intimate appearance.

Red raises a room’s energy level. The most intense color, it pumps the adrenaline like no other hue. It is a good choice when you want to stir up excitement, particularly at night. In the living room or dining room, red draws people together and stimulates conversation. In an entryway, it creates a strong first impression.



Yellow captures the joy of sunshine and communicates happiness. It is an excellent choice for kitchens, dining rooms and bathrooms, where it is energizing and uplifting. In halls, entries and small spaces, yellow can feel expansive and welcoming




Blue is said to bring down blood pressure and slow respiration and heart rate. That is why it is considered calming, relaxing and serene, and it is often recommended for bedrooms and bathrooms.




Green is considered the most restful color for the eye. Combining the refreshing quality of blue and the cheerfulness of yellow, green is suited for almost any room on the house. In the kitchen, green cools things down; in a family room or living room, it encourages unwinding but has enough warmth
to promote comfort and togetherness.




Purple, in its darkest values (eggplant, for example), is rich, dramatic and sophisticated. It is associated with luxury and creativity; as an accent or secondary color, it gives a scheme depth. Lighter versions of purple, such as lavender and lilac, bring the same restful quality to bedrooms as blue does, but without the risk of feeling chilly.


Orange evokes excitement and enthusiasm, and is an energetic color. While not a good idea for a living room or for bedrooms, this color is great for an exercise room; it will bring out all the emotions that you need released during your fitness routine. In ancient cultures, orange was believed to heal the lungs and increase energy levels.



Neutrals (black, gray, white and brown) are basic to the decorator’s tool kit. All-neutral schemes fall in and out of fashion, but their virtue lies in their flexibility: Add color to liven things up; subtract it to calm things down.



Crimson can make some people feel irritable. Invoking feelings of rage and hostility, this is a color that should be avoided as the main color of a room. Sitting for long periods of time in a room painted in this color will likely affect the peace and harmony you are striving to create in your home. 




Exterior design is the process of designing the exterior of the building. Exterior design can be just as creative and artistic as interior, a knowledge of structural engineering is necessary. Exterior design is usually performed by an architect with help of civil and structural engineers. It’s the design of outside of the building like painting, outer designing.





Modern House Exterior design




Saturday, December 31, 2016

Sales Statistics - Wildest Chemistry

     The last article glanced about marketing and its types profound its foundation by continuing this article equipped about sales. What it is actually all about and in terms of its beneficiaries. MAKE A TRIP TO WHAT EVERYONE IS ALREADY INTO IT and its so called "Sales"

What is sales?


            1. It means selling of the product and services to customers according their needs or requirement in terms of economic way. 2. Sales is exchange of product or service instead of money. 3. Sales is nothing but exchange of goods and services from one person to another person in terms of cash.



                                                 "Everyone lives by selling Somethings"

  Selling styles:


1. Aggressive Selling:


            A aggressive sell is designed to get a consumer to purchase a good or service in the short - term, rather than evaluate his or her options and potentially decide to wait on the purchase.

            There are few aggressive closing strategies for Sales people:

The time limit:


            It use time to close a sale are following a time proven method of encouraging someone to buy out of fear of losing money or opportunity.

  •  Raising the spectre of competitors obtaining a certain product or service before the prospect
  • Reminding the prospect that if a deal is not closed by a certain date his or her business goals could be negatively impacted
  •  Telling the prospect that if he or she does not close within a certain  timeframe, features or pricing may be radically different

The Persistent Close:


           Sales people using the persistent close will refuse to take 'no' for and answer and continue pressing the prospect until 'no' becomes 'yes' - sometimes if for no other reason than to end the meeting. Sales people who are pursuing a persistent close will simply continue raising closing questions in order to press the prospect to change his or her mind - a hard sell. This technique is dangerous because prospects can be easily put off by the pressure. Sales people should only use the persistent close as part of an overarching closing strategy, or if it must be used on its own, on prospects who are extremely interested and ready to buy but are showing reluctance that could likely be overcome.



The Take Away Close:


             It is a literal name for one of the most aggressive closing strategies that sales people can use. This is used well into the sales process, when the prospect already understands his or her options and usually after the prospect has already showed interest in narrowing down the section.when a prospect is wavering about signing the contract, sales people can introduce the take away close in order to push the close out of the prospect's fear of losing more than he or she gains. This take away may involve:
  • Offering a cheaper alternative while pointing out that the prospect's needs will not be fully met by the alternative
  • Offering to reduce the cost of a deal by removing one or more features or products in which the prospect showed the most interest

2. Need - oriented Selling:


            In this selling style, where you need to think quickly and adapt. The sales rep needs to be highly tactful and at the same time, be able to ask such question to find out what the customer needs. Based upon the kind of need that pops up, you will have to show yourself as the problem solver. In simple terms, this selling style is about learning more about the client's existing needs rather than create new ones.

3. Product - oriented Selling:


            The sales rep is more inclined towards explaining the features and benefits of the product to the prospect. This style includes a lot of product demo till the time the prospect is fully convinced about the benefits. A point to be noted is that the sales rep must fully be aware of the product or service as there could be a lot of questions from the prospect and in order to give them a convincing answer, you must know all the salient features of the product and the benefits associated  with the same.

4. Relationship building:


Keep up with people:

             You are going to have to maintain your relationships. If you don't talk to someone for months, you'll fall off their radar, or they may not immediately, jump at the chance to help you finally reach out to them and ask. Keep some records of who you have networked with and check in with them every so often. If they're online contacts on a digital networks, keep your conversations going. If they're colleagues or people with whom you've swapped business cards, send an email or make a call every month or so. Check in and say hello. If you tend to forget to make - or worse, return - calls or emails, use a task management system or calendar to remind you to call or write.

Work hard:

             People want to invest in someone who is going to provide results. You might need to show them that you can deliver before you can expect them to have your back or put in a good word for you. When someone asks for something, give a little more. Deliver early and take initiative to help in ways you weren't't asked. It takes effort to build relationships with bosses, colleagues, friends, and family, and you might have to be the first one to do a favor.

Focus on giving:

            Similarly, many people want to build relationships so that they can have someone to help them out when they need it. Try to have a less Machiavellian attitude. Always think about how you can help people in your network. They're far more likely to return a favor than they are to go out of their way for you, especially early in your relationship.

Build trust:

           Never take advantage of people. Don't even let them think that you'd do so. It's the quickest way to ruin a relationship and build a bad reputation that can harm other relationships too. The key to building trust is being honest. When you are willing to forego your own interests to help someone else, they know they can rely on you. Do the right thing and be dependable, and you'll see your relationships grow stronger.

Show an interest in others:

           Pretentious people who talk about themselves all the time don't get very far. Smart people know that an early step to gaining respect and building a relationship is to show interest in other people. Listen to what people have to say and show a sincere interest in them. Ask questions about their job and kids. Keep tract of what they've brought up in the past and follow up with them. Everyone is impressed when someone shows they've taken the time to remember their stories.

                                       Sales Statistics




  • 48% of sales people never follow up with a Prospect
  • 25% of sales people make a second contact and stop
  • 12% of sales people only make three contacts and stop
  • 10% of sales people make more than three contacts
  • 2% of sales are made on the first contact
  • 3% of sales are made on the second contact
  • 5% of sales are made on the third contact
  • 10% of sales are made on the forth contact
  • 80% of sales are made on the fifth to twelfth contact
                                                                       - National Sales Executive Association


I think now you can understand about sales from this post. Stay on connected and thank for anytime views.